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Hardened to Hickory (The Missing Chapter in Andrew Jackson’s Life) by Tony L. Turnbow

Unpublished documents reveal how the backwoods Andrew Jackson, who had never commanded a battle, stepped forward to take on the mantle of General George Washington.  Before Jackson became the next general to drive the British army from American soil, he first had to defeat the commander of the U.S. Army, General James Wilkinson, who embodied a privileged and unproductive establishment, and worse, who had sold his loyalty to work as a spy known as “Agent 13” on the payroll of a European enemy. 

It was a battle of wits and wills between two American titans. The missing piece of the puzzle in Jackson’s biography is how he was transformed into “Old Hickory” by his intense will to succeed and his ability to recover from his own mistakes.


Tony L. Turnbow, a Franklin, Tennessee attorney, has a degree in southern U.S. history from Vanderbilt University and has published books and articles on the history of the Old Natchez Trace.  In the course of writing a book about Meriwether Lewis’ death, he discovered unpublished accounts of Andrew Jackson’s 1813 Natchez Expedition.


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